The Munich Airport has committed to become CO2 neutral until 2030. It currently operates 53 buses to transport passengers from the gates to the airplanes. The buses are responsible for emissions of around 2,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.
Shifting this fleet to solely battery electric vehicles is difficult, because it would lead to significant stress on the existing electric power supply network. Approximately 2MW electrical power would be needed during 8 hours in the night for charging the buses. The buses are often used for up to 16 hours a day, covering about 150 to 200 kilometres, which is comparable to city buses. Routes can be difficult to plan ahead due to constant, albeit often minor, shifts in flight operations.
On the other hand, the apron buses have a particularly high demand for air-conditioning energy, especially in winter, due to the long door opening times. Heating via heat pumps or even electric heating significantly reduces the range of battery-electric vehicles.
Fleet operators like the Munich Airport need a solution for their buses, which enables the heavy vehicles to...
... run on zero emission renewable energy.
... not stress the local electricity grid.
... operate 16 hours per day.
... fulfill changing routes and timetables.
... provide enough energy for heating or cooling of the passenger compartment.